Ground Water


Ground Water Survey work is carried out in the State since 1970. Monitoing of 100 Permanent Observation Wells(POWs) in each district(except 50 pows in Datia district)four times in a year from:-

Ravi 1st January to 10th January
Pre monsoon 20th May to 30th May
Rainy Season 20th August to 30th August
Post Monsoon 1st November to 10th November

The main objective of the groundwater component of HP is the establishment of the required infrastructure for improving the understanding of groundwater systems, both in the terms quantity and quality. The water level and water quality monitoring networks have been expanded and upgraded by replacing non-representative observation wells with scientifically designed piezometers.

Piezometers are purpose-built observation wells which are designed to measure the vertically averaged piezometric head of a single layer, and cannot be used for groundwater exploitation. The piezometer have been designed to provide for sampling of groundwater from the tapped aquifer for water quality monitoring.

The design of the network has been optimized by integrating the monitoring piezometers of the different agencies. The improved network has been designed to get a good spatial and vertical coverage and representation of all the hydro-geological setups, considering the present and projected status of groundwater development and water quality variations.

As many as 625 piezometers have been provided with Digital Water Level Recorders (DWLR's), to ensure measurement of undistorted piezometric head at the desired frequency (ranging from 10 minutes to 6 hours). The accurate and high frequency piezometric head data will enhance the technical content of the data and also facilitate many new analyses. The improved groundwater monitoring network would provide:

  • Long-term hydrogeologic information and groundwater quality data,
  • characterisation of different groundwater flow regimes,
  • Recommendations for regulations related to use and conservation of groundwater resources,
  • A baseline for control of groundwater over-pumping
  • Information necessary for conjunctive use planning

Total 3750 Permanent Observations Well are being monitored in 48 district of the State by 43 District Ground Water Survey Units supervised by 7 divisional Ground Water Survey Unit and controlled by Ground Water Survey Circle and Survey & Investigation Circle at Bhopal and Jabalpur respectively. All the observation wells were domestic dug wells with perfect revetment dimentaions in parapet wells.

Measuring point were fixed for all these observations and these were marking Ground Water Survey Water Resources Department observation wells to distinguish from Central Ground Water Board Observation wells. All these wells were connected to Mean Sea Level (MSL)During 1970 to 1980 irrigation was done though open day well only water table depleting year by year due to major financial thrust given for irrigation for construction of irrigation wells and pump sets, Bore wells culture commenced ofter 1980 when water table depleted to more then 15.00 Mt. in many parts of the State.It is very necessary to monitor effect of ground water level before Hydrology Project through traditional monitoring system. There are complication for correct monitoring are as:

  • Through traditional monitoring System short interval monitoring should
  • Deep aquifer should not monition through traditional monitoring system.
  • Contineous changes of ground water levels should not monitor due to low frequency.- In traditional mortaring system we are monition only four times in a year. - We should not recorded data in electronic media due to manually monitory system

Aim of HP Regarding Ground Water

The prime objective of the hydrology Project is to develop a sustainable Hydrological Information System (HIS) for 8 States in penisular India, set up by the State Surface Water and Ground Water Department and by the central agencies with the following charcectersties

  • Demand driven i.e. output is tuned to the user needs.
  • Use of Standardized equipment and adequate procedures for data collection and processing.
  • Computerized, comprehensive and easily accessible database.
  • Proper infrastructure to ensure sustainability.
  • The Hydrological Information system (HIS) provides information on the spatial and temporal charcectersties of water Quality and Quality variables/ parameter describing the water resources/water use system in peniular India.

Groundwater monitoring network

Now after implementation of Hydrology Project the two circle located at Bhopal and Jabalpur 7 divisional data processing center, 34 District ground water units and 7 water Quality labs are Coordinating ground water activities .chief Engineer (Bodhi) Bhopal is the Nodal officer for the Hydrology Project

  • Improve physical facilities and hydrology Services for data measurement, validation, collation, and analysis of data -: These have been significant achievements in the institutional development in terms of buildings vehicles, equipments and computer system. State Ground Water Data Center at Bhopal, Divisional Ground Water Data Centers Gwalior, Ujjain, Sagar, Khandwa, Jabalpur,Balaghat and Rewa and one level II+ WQ labs at Bhopal and 6 level II Ujjain, Gwalior, Sagar, Balaghat, Jabalpur and Satna have been with all modern high-tech equipment, Computer for Computerization, Validation, analysis and processing of Ground Water and Water Quality Data. (Piezometers 625 and observation wells 3750) are upgraded and modernized with digital Water level recorder.
  • Strengthening in institutional and technical capabilities.-: The various institutional and technical capabilities established for the measurement, validation, collation and analysis of hydrological and water quality data are as under:
  • Constructed all 625 Piezometers .
  • Construct all 540 prototype Covers.
  • Procured and installed of all 540 DWLR .
  • Constructed all 6 level II and .I Level + WQ Lab Buildings.
  • Renewed and installed of all lab equipment .
  • Procured of all vehicles for data Collation.
  • Procured and installed of all Computer in the data Center .
  • Organization Incremental staff (G.W.WQ Computer specification) - for Ground water Data Centers & Water Quality Labs.
  • Training in HIS Parodies.

Added Value of HP Inputs

  • Groundwater resource assessment
  • Groundwater recharge response relationship
  • Impact of watershed management on the groundwater resources
  • Ground Water quality data changes with time

Water Quality Data availability Catalogue
Engineer in – Chief (BODHI)
Water Resources Department
Jal Sansadhan Bhawan,
Tulsi Nagar, BHOPAL (M.P.)
e mail :-


  • Design of piezometers (distribution and numbers)
  • Digital water level recorders, explain significance with respect to groundwater development
  • Procedures for operation of these instruments- Parameters which these instruments measure
  • Frequency at which the parameters are measured


  • Geological map of the state
  • Drainage map of the state
  • Location of monitoring points
  • Groundwater elevation contour maps  (Maps can be downloaded from HP website)


Superintending Engineer Ground
Water Survey Circle
Water Resources Department
Kolar Road, Bhopal (M.P)
Email :-